Intel® Pentium® Silver and Intel® Celeron® Processors

Datasheet, Volume 1 of 2

ID 633935
Date 12/27/2022
Document Table of Contents

Thermal Considerations

The processor TDP is the maximum sustained power that should be used for design of the processor thermal solution. TDP is a power dissipation and junction temperature operating condition limit, specified in this document, that is validated during manufacturing for the base configuration when executing a near worst case commercially available workload as specified by Intel. TDP may be exceeded for short periods of time or if running a very high power workload.

The processor integrates multiple processing IA cores, graphics cores and a PCH on a single package. This may result in power distribution differences across the package and should be considered when designing the thermal solution.

Intel® Burst Technology allows processor IA cores to run faster than the base frequency. It is invoked opportunistically and automatically as long as the processor is conforming to its temperature, power delivery and current control limits. When Intel® Burst Technology is enabled:

  • Applications are expected to run closer to TDP more often as the processor will attempt to maximize performance by taking advantage of estimated available energy budget in the processor package.
  • The processor may exceed the TDP for short durations to utilize any available thermal capacitance within the thermal solution. The duration and time of such operation can be limited by platform runtime configurable registers within the processor.
  • Graphics peak frequency operation is based on the assumption of only one of the graphics domains (GT/GTx) being active. This definition is similar to the IA core Burst concept, where peak burst frequency is achieved only when one IA core is active. Depending on the workload being applied and the distribution across the graphics domains the user may not observe peak graphics frequency for a given workload or benchmark.
  • Thermal solutions and platform cooling that are designed to less than thermal design guidance may experience thermal and performance issues.

Package Power Control

The package power control settings of PL1, PL2, PL3, PL4 and Tau allow the designer to configure Intel® Burst Technology to match the platform power delivery and package thermal solution limitations.

  • Power Limit 1 (PL1): A threshold for average power that will not exceed - recommend to set to equal TDP power. PL1 should not be set higher than thermal solution cooling limits.
  • Power Limit 2 (PL2): A threshold that if exceeded, the PL2 rapid power limiting algorithms (RAPL) will attempt to limit the spike above PL2.
  • Power Limit 3 (PL3): A threshold that if exceeded, the PL3 rapid power limiting algorithms will attempt to limit the duty cycle of spikes above PL3 by reactively limiting frequency. This is an optional setting.
  • Power Limit 4 (PL4): A limit that will not be exceeded, the PL4 power limiting algorithms will preemptively limit frequency to prevent spikes above PL4.
  • Burst Time Parameter (Tau): An averaging constant used for PL1 Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) power calculation.

Implementation of Intel® Burst Technology only requires configuring PL1, PL1 Tau and PL2. PL3 and PL4 are disabled by default.

Burst Time Parameter (Tau)

Burst Time Parameter (Tau) is a mathematical parameter (units of seconds) that controls the burst algorithm. During a maximum power burst event, the processor could sustain PL2 for a duration longer than the Burst Time Parameter. If the power value and/or Burst Time Parameter is changed during runtime, it may take some time based on the new Burst Time Parameter level for the algorithm to settle at the new control limits. The time varies depending on the magnitude of the change, power limits and other factors. There is an individual Burst Time Parameter associated with Package Power Control and Platform Power Control.